Thirty Years' War
- The Thirty Years' War was a religious political conflict that began in 1618 and ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia. its causes were essentially the antagonism between Protestants and Catholics and the unrest that developed in Europe owing to the ambitions of the house of Austria. The war broke out in Bohemia, following the Defenestration of Prague and is divided into four periods. The first was the Palatine period (1618-24), during the course of which Frederick, the elector of the Palatinate who was elected king of Bohemia, was defeated at White Mountain (1620) and subsequently deprived of his territories. The second period was the Danish (1624-29), during which King Christian IV of Denmark became the leader of the Lutherans. The third was the Swedish period (1630-35), during which King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, the victor at Breitenfeld and at Lech, was killed at Liitzen. The fourth, or the French period (1635-48), so called because Cardinal riche-lieu, after having secretly supported the enemies of the house of Habsburg, intervened directly against Austria by declaring war on Spain. After initial setbacks, the French victories at Rocroi (1643) and at Fribourg and Nordlingen in 1645 (see henri de turenne), at the same time as the Swedish taking of Prague, forced Austria to negotiate and subsequently to sign the Peace of Westphalia. The Thirty Years' War left Germany devastated. The beneficiaries of the war were France, Sweden, the United Provinces, and Switzerland, as well as the electorate of Brandenburg, which then began its rise.
France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.
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Thirty Years War — • Though pre eminently a German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Thirty Years' War — Thirty Years War, the a European war fought mainly in Germany between 1618 and 1648. It led to the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire losing power in Europe … Dictionary of contemporary English
Thirty Years' War — n. a series of European wars (1618 48) on political and religious issues, fought orig. between German Catholics and German Protestants, but later involving the Swedish, French, and Spanish … English World dictionary
Thirty Years' War — For other uses, see Thirty Years War (disambiguation). 30 Years War Les Grandes Misères de … Wikipedia
Thirty Years' War — the war, often regarded as a series of wars (1618 48), in central Europe, initially involving a conflict between German Protestants and Catholics and later including political rivalries with France, Sweden, and Denmark opposing the Holy Roman… … Universalium
Thirty Years’ War — (1618–1648) Though a conflict of vast scale throughout the European continent, the focus of the Thirty Years’ War was on issues peculiar to the Habsburg lands and Germany, where the Habsburgs acted as emperors. The Reformation had brought… … Historical dictionary of Austria
THIRTY YEARS' WAR — the name given to a series of wars arising out of one another in Germany during 1618 48; was first a war of Catholics against Protestants, but in its later stages developed into a struggle for supremacy in Europe. On the Catholic side were… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Thirty Years' War — noun a series of conflicts (1618 1648) between Protestants and Catholics starting in Germany and spreading until France and Denmark and Sweden were opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain • Instance Hypernyms: ↑war, ↑warfare • Part Meronyms:… … Useful english dictionary
Thirty Years' War — series of wars which were fought from 1618 to 1648 and involved several European countries (Germany, France, Sweden and Denmark) … English contemporary dictionary
Thirty Years' War — Тридцатилетняя война … Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов